2018-07-01

Cases and Declension: The Passive Voice



In the last posts we were presented to some sentence ingredients — namely, the direct and indirect objects — but there is one thing they shared: their subjects in an active standing. We call it active voice, i.e., when the subject acts.

John broke a glass.
The dog caught the ball.
I can listen good music.
you can touch the screen.
God sees everything.

Every of these sentences are in active voice; their subjects doing the verb and the objects receiving effects: John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these subjects are doing things.

However, there is certain moments the subject will not be caught in action. Instead, it will only receive the effect. Basicly it is the soul of the passive voice.

In English, we make passive voice doing a sort of  be + the verb in ed + by , inverting the order of subject and object.

The glass was broken by John
The ball was caught by the dog
Good music can be listened by me
The screen can be touched by you
Everything is being seen by God

Notice that the object became the subject, and the subject became the agent of the passive.

Let's remember the active sentences. Take note of those with implied subject (shown in square brackets):

John głasut rompote.
Inu bolat gerite.
[Mi] Gi ongaut ojukenu.
[Ti] Ekranot togukenjed.
Bog panot laj.

Jusuk does it in another fashion, inverting terms and re-signaling them accordingly.

Głasu John-kar rompoteri.
Bola inukar geriteri.
Gi ongau miker ojukeneri.
Ekran tiker togukeneri.
Pan Bogkar laji.

First, the objects lost their -t suffix and became subjects. After, the former subject of the sentence became the agent of the passive voice, having the ablative case suffix (in red) attached to them. Finally, the verb took its passive form.

The passive form of any verb is the active form plus -i (if it ends with consonant) or -ri (if it ends with vowel), both for the past and non-past, definite or indefinite. Don't forget the verb must agree with the subject!

Jusuk marks the agent of the passive voice with the dative suffix -kar/-ker. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

How choose between kar and ker? According to the vowel harmony.

Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, ukarekran "screen" → ekrankar "by the screen"
London → Londonkar "by London" (it might be "by the London government")
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzkar
e, i, ö, ükerden "eletricity" → denker
žalapir "nymph" → žalapirker
kör "circular" (a document) → körker
basün "female cousin" → basünker

Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

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