2018-07-31

Don Ari Na - Onde Houver Fé

Don Ari Na
Luiz Cláudio




Halat verekenu
Kompesonakar somrenker soda rot verekenu
Mirt i havat da mi mo
Hačuznet verekenu, afan...
De miker verełmi i rah lasti panot ekunai
Bogenhava, set verekenjem
Kiris da...

Don ari na
Gy koe zabše rah adelaj
«Da tito zabše rah kojš»
Don Ari na
Mir rah adelaj, nemugor žjokono irene jase da
Bognak suikedaň
Saruzbatamot kehepikenda, i met
Marebei da ha ekunai mae,
Don Ari na... 

Ke delani somren da,
He umno i kazno onot gyame ojutja
Sedo i kolece da,
Kaj teonobagornak demero, 
bał pomuckar bał mu,
Havalei saruzera no io,
De Ie pani volodot da meje
Kol veredovjonk


2018-07-28

Nando Moura i Rogério Betin brunni sačmalia



Maninzat marazoda ronak plu ip ražo:
Nulai ikadekoranak keseno faktum.
Nando Moura i Rogério Betin brunni sačmalia da gy amostra. 
Fi Bog na mi, ezzsint pusei kaeni na izolasotom.
O Etti, fermłabussz!




2018-07-26

Cases and Declension: The Possession System - Part II

Hi ♥


In the last post we were presented to the Possession System. We learned a bunch of suffixes that work for the purpose.

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-m-om, -em
youti-d-od, -ed
heon-j-ja, -je
she
it
webiz-nk-onk, -enk
youtiz-tok, -tek-otok, -itek
theyonk-juk-juk

However, we need remember something we were told:

"These endings are meant for possession of single objects only."

English pronouns remain the same, no matter how is the object count. Jusuk manages this in different way:

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-im-oim, -eim
youti-id-oid, -eid
heon-ij-ija, -ije
she
it
webiz-ink-oink, -eink
youtiz-itok, -itek-oitok, -eitek
theyonk-ijuk-ijuk

These endings are meant for possession of multiple objects, so they must get attached to the singular form of the noun.

Vowel harmony is quite simple as Turkish's (related to the latest vowel in the noun) aind involves just two vowel class (instead of that four ones in Turkish).
  • last vowel is one of a, o, u → -oim, -oid, -ija, -oink, -oitok
  • last vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü → -eim, -eid, -ije, -eink, -eitek 
Some examples:

kese da tejpeim.
 → these are my videotapes.

Albert, kese da kenjeid.
 → Albert, these are your books.

kese da tiroink.
 → these are our trees.

Peter i Julia, ase da krovaitok
 → Peter and Julia, those are your oxen.

These endings are meant for possession of multiple objects only, and every of these must be attached to the singular form of the noun, before any case.

And how get the possessive pronouns for these?

They remain the same as for possession of single objects.

Kesek da mino.
 → These is mine.

Kesek tejpek da mino.
 → These videotapes are mine.

Peter i Julia, asek krovara da tizno.
 → Peter and Julia, that oxen are yours.

O Charlie, kesek tirim da bizno, mu tino.
 → Charlie, these trees are ours, not yours.

O Charlie, kesek tirim mu tino, de bizno.
 → Charlie, these trees aren't yours, but ours.

Well... that's enough for now. Bye ;) 

2018-07-20

Cases and Declension: The Possession System

Hi ♥


Sometimes we're caught in a need of express certain things belongs to us or not, and so on. This is called possession and languages usually deal with it by using a subclass of words called possessive pronouns. Let's remember them:

Person Possessive Examples
Adjective Pronoun
Imyminethis is my car
this car is mine
youyouryoursthis is your book
this book is yours
hehishisthis is his wallet
this wallet is his
sheherhersthese are her shoes
these shoes are hers
ititsitsthat are its twigs
that twigs are its
weouroursthis is our house
this house is ours
youyouryoursthat is your farm
that farm is yours
theytheirtheirsthose are their husbands
those husbands are theirs

Let's know right now how Jusuk manages this.

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-m-om, -em
youti-d-od, -ed
heon-j-ja, -je
she
it
webiz-nk-onk, -enk
youtiz-tok, -tek-otok, -itek
theyonk-juk-juk

In Jusuk, adjective pronouns became special endings and so they get attached to the related noun. You noticed more than one option for each person because their using depends on whether the noun ends in consonant or vowel, as also as the vowel harmony.

Vowel harmony is quite simple as Turkish's (related to the latest vowel in the noun) aind involves just two vowel class (instead of that four ones in Turkish).

  • last vowel is one of a, o, u → -om, -od, -ja, -onk, -tok/-otok
  • last vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü → -em, -ed, -je, -enk, -tek/-itek 

Some examples:

kese da kurumom.
 → this is my car.

Albert, kese da kenjed.
 → Albert, this is your book.

kese da hazonk.
 → this is our house.

Peter i Julia, ase da falmotok
 → Peter and Julia, that is your farm.

These endings are meant for possession of single objects only.

And how get the possessive pronouns?

In Jusuk, possessive pronouns are the same personal pronouns declined to the partitive, In other words:

  • mi "I" → mino "mine"
  • ti "you" → tino "yours"
  • on "he, she, it" → onno "his, hers, its"
  • biz "we" → bizno "ours"
  • tiz "you" → tizno "yours"
  • onk "they" → onkno "theirs"

More examples:

Kese da mino.
 → This is mine.

Kese kurum da mino.
 → This car is mine.

Peter i Julia, ase falmo da tizno.
 → Peter and Julia, that farm is yours.

O Charlie, kese haz da bizno, mu tino.
 → Charlie, this house is ours, not yours.

O Charlie, kese haz mu tino, de bizno.
 → Charlie, this house is not yours, but ours.

Well... that's enough for now. Bye ;) 

2018-07-14

Cases and Declension: The Medial Voice

Hey!



In the last posts we were presented to the active voice, i.e., when the subject acts.

John głasut rompote.
 → John broke a glass.

Inu bolat gerite.
 → The dog caught the ball.

[Mi] Gi ongaut ojukenu.
 → I can listen good music.

[Ti] Ekranot togukenjed.
 → you can touch the screen.

Bog panot laj.
 → God sees everything.

Also we have found how to deal with sentences in the passive voice.

Głasu John-kar rompoteri.
 → The glass was broken by John

Bola inukar geriteri.
 → The ball was caught by the dog

Gi ongau miker ojukeneri.
 → Good music can be listened by me

Ekran tiker togukeneri.
 → The screen can be touched by you

Pan Bogkar laji.
 → Everything is being seen by God

For the passive voice, three things were necessary:
  1. Move the object to the subject place (i.e., transform the object into the subject of the sentence);
  2. Move the subject to the agent of the passive (and unhiding it if needed as we had seen, when dealing with implied subject); and
  3. Mark the verb accordingly.
The Medial Voice serves to describe certain actions whose effects falls upon the subject and the object, either when subject and object are the same (reflexive) or when they are in both stances simutaneously (reciprocal).

It's more related to some certain verbs, such as dakasoda "hug", kisada "kiss", heda "talk" etc.

Reflexive: use the special verb form, with no object. Emphasis can be done with the dative form of eis "himself, herself, itself" (eisker).

Asszeberer
 → [He] shaves itself.

Eisker asszeberer
 → [He] shaves itself. 

Głasu rompoterer.
 → The glass broke.   (might be by an unknown actor or for some misfortune, etc)

Głasu eisker rompoterer.
 → The glass broke

Reciprocal: use the special verb form, placing both subject and object together in nominative. Emphasis can be made by using the dative form of eisim "themselves" (eisimker)

Markus i Julia hejer.
 → Markus and Julia talk to each other.

Markus i Julia eisimker hejer.
 → Markus and Julia talk to each other.

Declension table of eis "himself, herself, itself":

CasesSingularDualPlural
nom.eiseislereisim
acc.eisteislerteisimet
gen.eiseneislereneisimen
dat.eisnekeislernekeisimnek
abl.eiskereislerkereisimker
loc.eisnieislernieisimni
instr.eisveeislerveeisimve
part.eisnoeislernoeisimno
abe.eisleeislerleeisimle
comit.eistoeislertoeisimto

Posession

PersonSingularDualPlural
mieisemeisleremeiseim
tieisedeisleredeiseid
oneisjeeislerjeeiseije
bizeisenkeislerenkeiseink
tizeisitekeislertekeiseitek
onkeisjukeislerjukeiseijuk

Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-07-09

The Jusuk Language


First, some interesting sentences:

In mazani tosedaň → going through the fire 🔥
Sue mazani ajumudaň → walking over the waters 🌊
Kaz inelni zamegudaň → swirling around within the wind 🌪️

Second, Jusuk is the new language I extracted from Ozen Language by changing a few things slightly, mostly at verb conjugation. I'm just planning to explain it in a future post.

That's all for now.

2018-07-07

Cases and Declension: The Locative


The Locative case marks the terms specifying a place, a point in the timeline, or a subject. Latin uses it for places only, and so it is across many languages.

Place

Da mane ludia da brelogyani perfilaji
→ There are so many people in line at the bakery.

Cuket i batat tiželani položujoh, gil malgujoh kaj.
→ Put the sugar and butter into the bow and mix well.

Time

Denver elni passar 9:20-ni apogioj.
→ The flight to Denver departs at 9:20 a.m.

Sokka gemuno tani he ittersa darah akemi.
→ The restaurant will be open at the time of the soccer match.

Subject

Patrick Ebano Bazeni palestrat soj.
→ Patrick gives lectures on [the topic of] Network Security.

It is quite simple to attach it, just -ni at the end of the term. If it is a noun phrase, the word at the very end should receive it.

Special Using Modes

EnglishOzen
in the time of (...)
at the time of (...)
(...)-no tani
at (clock time)(clock time)-ni
yesterday
today
tomorrow
eren
kjo
ašiten
the place where (...)(...)-no touni
here
over here
over there
ke / keni
se / seni
e / eni

Clock Times

Jusuk and Ozen always use the 24h format, so the times in the p.m. period are shown accordingly:

→ 9:20 p.m. → 21:20
→ 5:30 a.m. → 5:30

Well, it should be enough for now. Bye (:

2018-07-01

Cases and Declension: The Passive Voice



In the last posts we were presented to some sentence ingredients — namely, the direct and indirect objects — but there is one thing they shared: their subjects in an active standing. We call it active voice, i.e., when the subject acts.

John broke a glass.
The dog caught the ball.
I can listen good music.
you can touch the screen.
God sees everything.

Every of these sentences are in active voice; their subjects doing the verb and the objects receiving effects: John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these subjects are doing things.

However, there is certain moments the subject will not be caught in action. Instead, it will only receive the effect. Basicly it is the soul of the passive voice.

In English, we make passive voice doing a sort of  be + the verb in ed + by , inverting the order of subject and object.

The glass was broken by John
The ball was caught by the dog
Good music can be listened by me
The screen can be touched by you
Everything is being seen by God

Notice that the object became the subject, and the subject became the agent of the passive.

Let's remember the active sentences. Take note of those with implied subject (shown in square brackets):

John głasut rompote.
Inu bolat gerite.
[Mi] Gi ongaut ojukenu.
[Ti] Ekranot togukenjed.
Bog panot laj.

Jusuk does it in another fashion, inverting terms and re-signaling them accordingly.

Głasu John-kar rompoteri.
Bola inukar geriteri.
Gi ongau miker ojukeneri.
Ekran tiker togukeneri.
Pan Bogkar laji.

First, the objects lost their -t suffix and became subjects. After, the former subject of the sentence became the agent of the passive voice, having the ablative case suffix (in red) attached to them. Finally, the verb took its passive form.

The passive form of any verb is the active form plus -i (if it ends with consonant) or -ri (if it ends with vowel), both for the past and non-past, definite or indefinite. Don't forget the verb must agree with the subject!

Jusuk marks the agent of the passive voice with the dative suffix -kar/-ker. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

How choose between kar and ker? According to the vowel harmony.

Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, ukarekran "screen" → ekrankar "by the screen"
London → Londonkar "by London" (it might be "by the London government")
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzkar
e, i, ö, ükerden "eletricity" → denker
žalapir "nymph" → žalapirker
kör "circular" (a document) → körker
basün "female cousin" → basünker

Well, it's all for now. Bye (: