2018-06-28

Cases and Declension: The Indirect Object


In the last post we were presented to the direct object sentences. We had seen some sentences that does require something to make them complete, because the verb has not embodied the whole meaning.

John broke
the dog caught
I can hear
you can touch
God sees

We had seen their response, and learned it is called direct object.

John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these is a direct object.

Well. For certain verbs, depending on the context, providing the direct object may not be enough.

Jordan provided.
My firm gives.
Alethia has paid.
You told.

First, let's give them their direct objects:

Jordan provided clean water.
My firm gives a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment.
You told the truth.

But, wait! Who got the clean water? Who got the lunch voucher? Who gets the payment? And who gets the truth? Let's complete the sentences:

Jordan provided clean water to the community.
My firm gives their employees a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment to the gym.
You told me the truth.

We would call each term the indirect object. According Grammar Bytes (access 2018-06-23), the indirect object is who gets or receives the direct object.

Jusuk marks the indirect object with the dative suffix -nak/-nek. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

Jordan masjaranak kirei suet provite.
Pužotam pracoveijnek lunčano vałšat gerij.
Alethia dožonak ketunofiat pagajoň.
Minek verat heted.

How choose between nak or nek? According to the vowel harmony.


Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, unakekran "screen" → ekranot
London → Londonot
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzot
e, i, ö, ünekden "eletricity" → denet
žalapir "nymph" → žalapiret
kör "circular" (a document) → köret
basün "female cousin" → basünet


Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

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