2018-06-28

Cases and Declension: The Indirect Object


In the last post we were presented to the direct object sentences. We had seen some sentences that does require something to make them complete, because the verb has not embodied the whole meaning.

John broke
the dog caught
I can hear
you can touch
God sees

We had seen their response, and learned it is called direct object.

John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these is a direct object.

Well. For certain verbs, depending on the context, providing the direct object may not be enough.

Jordan provided.
My firm gives.
Alethia has paid.
You told.

First, let's give them their direct objects:

Jordan provided clean water.
My firm gives a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment.
You told the truth.

But, wait! Who got the clean water? Who got the lunch voucher? Who gets the payment? And who gets the truth? Let's complete the sentences:

Jordan provided clean water to the community.
My firm gives their employees a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment to the gym.
You told me the truth.

We would call each term the indirect object. According Grammar Bytes (access 2018-06-23), the indirect object is who gets or receives the direct object.

Jusuk marks the indirect object with the dative suffix -nak/-nek. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

Jordan masjaranak kirei suet provite.
Pužotam pracoveijnek lunčano vałšat gerij.
Alethia dožonak ketunofiat pagajoň.
Minek verat heted.

How choose between nak or nek? According to the vowel harmony.


Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, unakekran "screen" → ekranot
London → Londonot
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzot
e, i, ö, ünekden "eletricity" → denet
žalapir "nymph" → žalapiret
kör "circular" (a document) → köret
basün "female cousin" → basünet


Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-06-22

Cases and Declension: The Direct Object


Such coffeepot depicted in the book's cover is a very strange object.


Some verb does not require terms to make their meaning complete, e.g., walk, run, grow, live, die, breathe... Effectively:

Mark walks
Steve runs
I grow
you live
Shannon has died
Kanon breathes 

etc. Thee phrases are complete, nothing more is needed to make them readily understandable.

However, other verbs need a complement, such as break, catch, see, hear, touch and so on.

John broke
the dog caught
I can hear
you can touch
God sees

and so on. all these are incomplete, and then a question arises: What he broke? What the dog caught? What I can hear? What you can touch? What God see?

The response to all of these questions is embodied by the direct object.

John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these is a direct object.

Jusuk marks direct object with the accusative suffix -t.

When the word ends in vowel or r or s or š or z or ž it's straightforward: just add -t.

John głasut rompote.
Inu bolat gerite.
Gi ongaut ojukenu.
Ekranot togukenjed.
Bog panot laj.

Some words:

žalapir "nymph" → žalapirt
kör "circular" (a document) → kört

If the word end in consonant (other than r, s, š, z, ž), it takes o or e right before taking the suffix, according to the vowel harmony.


Last vowel
is...
Link vowel
must be...
Examples
a, o, uoekran "screen" → ekranot
London → Londonot
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzot
e, i, ö, üeden "eletricity" → denet
prestig "prestige" → prestiget
nög "nose" → nöget
basün "female cousin" → basünet


Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-06-09

Our Father

Would be somehow interesting if we could translate into Juuk some universally known things. One of these is Our Father, also known as The Lord's Prayer.



In Jusuk Language it's titled Ha Biz Abank (lit. "The We Father-our"). Ha Abank is sufficient to mean "The Our Father", where Ha is the definite article and Aba means father, with the -nk possessive suffix attached to it, meaning "our". The Biz "We" in the title is there for strengthen emphasis. Remember the verb come usually at the very sentences' end.


HA BIZ ABANK

O Biz Abank ro sorani da
Ha Numad na relisiji
L Ouhamad biznek rokaj
Ha volonad na soji,
Sorajasni da issibani
Eppjom brenket biznek na adaja
Ramačonkot na innoskajod,
Ramačenoroikot innoskajme rojasel
Tentareker bizt na mu eluanuj
De akukar bizt na perij
Kara l Ouham da Tin, kaj ha Mae
Kaj l Honor i ha Głorie
Da horbel i horbel
Amen.


Homework

Invest your efforts in understand at least something written into Jusuk (above) while you remember the prayer or reading from the Bible (I would tell you to use KJV in English, or ACF if you speak Portuguese).