2018-12-31

Happy New Year!



Neked Guulešai Novi Nen!


Kaj Nosticia mu verai

L harmonia darah Bume
L disonance darah Kire
Kaj ze he aono oarani
Chordia mino rah oajechor
Elni al om
Elni narah al om

L jumečjukjo darah Bume
L disonance darah Kire
Kaj ze he umno oarani
Hou mino rah sekiejer
Blaziterer bjas
Chaosuni inna

(14 Bis, 1980)

2018-12-24

Merry Christmas!




Happy Holidays 
Gi Festura
(from Brazilian "Boas Festas")

Merry Christmas
Guulešai Noela

Happy New Year
Guulešai Novi Nen

Happy 2019
Guulešai 2019 
(2019: arsen-žu-kju-nen)


for you → neked

for us → nekenk

for us all, for everyone → tulnak, minnanak

for your father → apadnak

for your mother →  kaadnak, aňadnak

for your wife → utsodnak

for your children → žjokoidnak

for your grandchildren → magoidnak

for your grandfather → žičaudnak

for your grandmother → bačaudnak


Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓

it can be Neked Guulešai Noela i Guulešai Novi Nen

(any person -- in their nak/nek form -- come first, then the greeting)

or even Guulešai Noela i Novi Nen.


Happy Holidays ^^

2018-12-19

Early Mistakes - Capital Inicial


Rišon Misra
Utasopola: Kiko Zambianchi
Singunor: Capital Inicial

Iranem da maiasa
Douni mi rot mu na šešijed
Feitam mu minnano
Bumni žaromot mu lefseviju
Fi mu rozumejš, tun mu lajš
Fi mett mu lajš, mett mu rozumejš
Douni mi rot mu na šešijed
Fi aleivosiam da maherad
Fi ha telom narah bi
Fi ha manom narah bi
De kol amesoj, amesoj
Amesoj, amesoj

Fi ği jomni na ha mi
Pan ašeremet na laketem
Amet na tomeketem kaj
Da, b rišon misra ni, bi
Fi ha telom narah bi
Fi ha manom narah bi
De kol amesoj, amesoj
Amesoj, amesoj

Fi ği jomni na ha mi
Pan ašeremet na laketem
Amet na tomeketem kaj
Da, b rišon misra ni, bi

Fi ha telom narah bi
Fi ha manom narah bi
De kol amesoj, amesoj
Amesoj, amesoj
Fi ha telom narah bi
Fi ha manom narah aler
De kol amesoj, amesoj
Amesoj, amesoj
Fi ha telom narah bi
Fi ha manom narah bi
De kol amesoj, amesoj
Amesoj, amesoj

(Ha vir ha Kiko Zambianchi!)



2018-12-13

Neked vevešajurah - Vencedores por Cristo: Through the Wordings

Let's make analysis on that poem from Goldent posted at Neked vevešajurah - Vencedores por Cristo.



Original verseMeaningGrammar/Comments
O Bogom i Naǧoum, Neked vevešajurahOh my Lord and King, I'll exalt Thee naǧ- "great"
-m "my"
Ha Nadot darah gihejemAnd I'll bless Thy Namegihejem
(definite conjugated)
O Bogom i Naǧoum, Neked vevešajurahOh my Lord and King, I'll exalt Thee -rah (future suffix)
Ha Nadot darah gihejemAnd I'll bless Thy Name
Eppjomomni Neked gihejurahEveryday I'll bless Theeep-/epp- "each of"
Ha Nadot darah lauderijemAnd I'll praise Thy Name
Horbel Neked da gihejurahI'll bless Thy Name for ever
Ha Nadot darah lauderijemAnd I'll praise Thy Name
O dochra! Kaputoidot eriteohOh doors! Raise your Heads-ra (plural emphasizer)
O eien hamonra! Da tatiteohOh eternal gates! Raise yourselves
So ha Krolichvała darah innijFor the King of the Glory may enter
Dare ha Naǧou? Dare Krolichvała?Who's the King? Who's the King of the Glory?dare "who"
Ha amnic Adon i ha NaǧmaeiThe Lord strong and mightyamnic "strong"
Ikusani MaeiThe mighty in battle-ni "locative-situative"
Solǧizarano AdonaiThe Lord of hosts
On da ha Naǧou! Da ha Krolichvała!He is the King! Yes, the King of the Glory!

Well, it should be enough for now (:

2018-12-07

Neked vevešajurah - Vencedores por Cristo




Neked vevešajurah (O dochra, eriteoh!)
Vencedores Por Cristo

O Bogom i Naǧoum, Neked vevešajurah
Ha Nadot darah gihejem
O Bogom i Naǧoum, Neked vevešajurah
Ha Nadot darah gihejem

Eppjomomni Neked gihejurah
Ha Nadot darah lauderijem
Horbel Neked da gihejurah
Ha Nadot darah lauderijem

O dochra! Kaputoidot eriteoh
O eien hamonra! Da tatiteoh
So ha Krolichvała darah innij
Dare ha Naǧou? Dare Krolichvała?

Ha amnic Adon i ha Naǧmaei
Ikusani Maei

Solǧizarano Adonai
On da ha Naǧou! Da ha Krolichvała!


2018-12-01

Jušuk Diacritics


Let's see by now how the diacritics modify themselves into their doubled forms (if any), and how each form is related to its diacritics.

DiacriticAlternative
Spelling
Doubled
Spelling
Example(s)Keyboard Shortcuts
(1)tscc /
tts
Horvacia
(Horvatsia)
"Croatia"
ALT+67 (C)
ALT+99 (c)
čtsz /
csz
tssz /
cssz
čusuda
(tszusuda)
"choose"
ALT+268 (Č)
ALT+269 (č)
ǧ (2)gy /
dzs
ggy /
ddzs
haǧia
(hagyia)
"distinction"
ALT+486 (Ǧ)
ALT+487 (ǧ)
ňnybaňka
(banyka)
"bubble"
ALT+327 (Ň)
ALT+328 (ň)
šszssztošal
(toszal)
"yearly"
ALT+352 (Š)
ALT+353 (š)
žzszzsabenžu
(abenzsu) "vengeance"
ALT+381 (Ž)
ALT+382 (ž)

The following consonants can get simply doubled: b, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v and z. By its own, the doubled form of h is ch.

ałrebessz "aurebesh"
akkordu "consensus"
alla "bird"
brumma "witch; fairy"
reddere "responsibility"
suffel "souffle"
taggetu "target"

Well, that's all for now (:

_____________________________________________________
¹ i.e., diacritical in the phonetical sense.
² a breve may be placed instead of the caron, i.e.,  may be Ğ (ALT+286) and ğ (ALT+287)

2018-11-25

Evidentiality



Evidentiality may be added to sentences by simply adding a particle right before the intended verb. The particles may be declined using the possession endings to improve understanding and/or show who said, although it may not be necessary.

particle meaning example
dałwitnessing certainty,
"surely"
On ulicat ze hokoušarene urni dałom pšejitje
[I saw] she crossed the street outside the pedestrian lane.
nebnon-witnessing certainty
"not-so surely"
Quantum Fund pekunjomot saikol neb inbestozojoň.
[I trust] the Quantum Fund is investing my money the best way.
bałhearsay,
someone else's comments
Gazolina bałom da šok takai.
I heard gasoline is very expensive.
uładcitation,
quote
Anthony ze postani uład dolgij.
Anthony said he is working at the post office.
muznałdubiously,
uncertainty
Alessia muznał da onhez.
[I dunno] Alessia is at home.

That's all for now.

2018-11-19

Emília - Sérgio Ricardo: Through the Wordings

Let's make analysis on that poem from Goldent posted at Emília - Sérgio Ricardo.



Original verseMeaningGrammar/Comments
Cłeliail mi!Oh! Poor of me!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejohEmilia, bring me some good news-t: accusative suffix
Pirlimpimpim, fi amelePirlimpimpim, if it doesn't rain-le: abessive (-less)
Da kaz vel kirisameIt'll be a wind or a drizzle
Cłeliail mi!Oh! Poor of me!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejohEmilia, bring me some good news
Pirlimpimpim, fi amelePirlimpimpim, if it doesn't rain
Da kaz vel kirisameIt'll be a wind or a drizzle
Mol ro da jase kotori,More than being a birdie,
Nanže, maneke, ludia, navjedzoAngel, a doll, people, a haunt
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyoIt is to be like Emília
Sogen, reumo, pole, amplitoseA meadow, a field, space, an amplitude
Mol ro da znono koMore than being a smart aleck
Kaj mahon naišo i czodanodaAnd keep secrets of doing magic-n: standalone genitive
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyoIt is to be like Emília
Fons, fuamo, nefaš, kazemonFountain, a flame, a blow, a gale
Jednaka l bi na ešaiAs much as the sun goes down
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechorAnd crosses set in the midst of the day-im: plural
-ni: locative (situative)
Jednaka l bi na ešaiAs much as the sun goes down
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechorAnd crosses set in the midst of the day

Well, it should be enought for now (:

2018-11-13

Emília - Sérgio Ricardo


Resultado de imagem para sítio do picapau amarelo

Emília
Sérgio Ricardo

Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame

Mol ro da jase kotori,
Nanže, maneke, ludia, navjedzo
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyo
Sogen, reumo, pole, amplitose
Mol ro da znono ko
Kaj mahon naišo i czodanoda
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyo
Fons, fuamo, nefaš, kazemon
Jednaka l bi na ešai
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechor
Jednaka l bi na ešai
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechor

Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame

Mol ro da jase kotori,
Nanže, maneke, ludia, navjedzo
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyo
Sogen, reumo, pole, amplitose
Mol ro da znono ko
Kaj mahon naišo i czodanoda
Da Emília, da onno jasel gyo
Fons, fuamo, nefaš, kazemon
Jednaka l bi na ešai
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechor
Jednaka l bi na ešai
Keresim z jomon bini kuremajechor

Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Cłeliail mi!
O Emilia, gy gi nociat hejoh
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame
Pirlimpimpim, fi amele
Da kaz vel kirisame

2018-11-08

Kjo da Gaunad: Through the Wordings

Let's make analysis on that poem from Goldent posted at Kjo da Gaunad - Hoje a Festa é Sua



Original verseMeaningGrammar/Comments
Kjo da novi jomToday is a new day
Gy hadimevti novi tanoOf a new time has just beganhadimevti: passive past participle of hadimeda
Novi jomim seniIn these our days-im: plural form (for consonant-ended words)
Ha köpiara darah minnanoThe joys will be of all-ra: plural form (for vowel-ended words)
Kol volodaIt's just to will
Ha ep jumeinkEach one of our dreamsep: each of
Darah fior...will come be truedarah: future form of particle da
Ha mirae hadimeteThe future has just began
Kjo da gaunadToday is your feast-d: single possession form of 2nd person singular
Kjo da gaunankToday is our feast-nk: single possession form of 1st person plural
Da volnak nekje, da gyno volIt's for someone's will, [the] someone's willnekje: for him/her/it
-no: standalone genitive
Gauna da nekem, kjoni da nekenkThe feast is yours, today it's ours nekem: for me
nekenk: for us
Da volnak nekjeIt's for someone's will-nak: indirect object

Well, it should be enought for now (:

2018-11-02

Kjo da Gaunad - Hoje a Festa é Sua




Globo
Gy Novi Ta

Kjo da novi jom
Gy hadimevti novi tano
Novi jomim seni
Ha köpiara darah minnano
Kol voloda
Ha ep jumeink
Darah fior...
Ha mirae hadimete

Kjo da gaunad
Kjo da gaunank
Da volnak nekje, da gyno vol
Gauna da nekem, kjoni da nekenk
Da volnak nekje


Watch this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LOratafL_yo

2018-10-27

Arisa i Losaria: Through the Wordings


Let's make analysis on that poem from Goldent posted at Arisa i Losaria:



Original verseMeaningGrammar/Comments
Gy tani hazamni deri Arisa[Someday] Arisa was at my house-am: my
-ni: at, in
(kaj mihez deri na)(and would [say like] be at home of mine)-hez: home of
Sembel deri nekem?[What] would seem to be for me?nekem: for me
On i LosariaShe and Losaria
Mu ha rišon i aritteNot the first [one] and the second
Morini da ekui ha ar, se arIn the forest both are equal, these two
Kirei morini, kirei onnaraIn the beautiful forest, [the] beautiful they [are]-ra: plural form
Mu sačmalia, mu aleivosiaNo trick, no treachery,
Kol ha kesen kaen disparitaraJust the disparities of this world-n: genitive
(shorthand of -no particle)

Well, it should be enought for now (:

2018-10-20

Arisa i Losaria




ALEIVOSIA

Gy tani hazamni deri Arisa
(kaj mihez deri na)
Sembel deri nekem?

On i Losaria
Mu ha rišon i aritte
Morini da ekui ha ar, se ar  
Kirei morini, kirei onnara

Mu sačmalia, mu aleivosia,
Kol ha kesen kaen disparitara

(A. Goldent, 2018-10-20)




2018-09-24

Doubling The Consonants


Doubled consonants insert a thin pause on spelling; they also help mark the stress of a word. Some languages, e. g., Spanish, Portuguese etc., make use graphic notations due to their irregular stress. Instead, Jusuk deals with it by doubling the consonants whenever it is needed. So every consonant has its own doubled form.

Remember stress falls usually at the penultimate, except for monosyllabics and also for infinitive form of verbs. Also: case markers do not alter stress.

There are two sorts of consonants: pristine and non-pristine.

Pristine: b  d  f  g  k  l  m  n  p  r  s  t  v  z
Non-pristine: c  č  gy  h  š  ž

Pristine consonants are doubled by simple reduplication, as seen below.
  • alorruče "mask": stress falls in the syllable lo.
  • taggu "target": stress is regular.
  • hattegetu "August (month)": because it is a compound word (hatte + getu), stress falls in the syllables ha and ge.
  • dabbiul "double u": stress falls in the syllable da.
Non-pristine consonants are doubled according to the following table:

Normal formAlternative formDoubled form
ctsttc
čczccz
gyggy
hcch
šszssz
žzszzs













2018-09-18

Catedral - O Silêncio

Catedral
Ha Silenc


Gy baňka z el umtłoni majukej
Gy parola z el silencno tłoni majukej
Tardugai, obovti kaeno emisaro
L hidenk, l preiank
Da bizno parolara, da hegomer uodara kaj
Bizni da onk, koenket mu obedijech
“Da kel toujni kazogor kazjase
Kazočat ojujonk fi, preiano uodara”

Saruzeinkni savagi tori
Nounkno eluani, jumeno touni
Noušano touno sotoni
Da hegomer uodarano paurai biz
So hejme da, uodarages uodarat
Preiano tani, da mu artistajase
“Mu parolaijot hegor ludia,
Dekoracei aloručet utugor kaj”

Silencno touni, alno eluani
Kaj uodara hejecher, da poste baetuni
Silencno touni, maneno eluani
Gy ippate parolat na ojujoh
Se umtłoni majukeje rah
Kol ip tani ojuda, da post se kaj, ha silenc

2018-09-12

Jorge Vercilo - Arco-íris

Ironebb
Jorge Vercillo


Ouno ao
Midi um
Ironebbnek petitem,
Borudanak
Neked nouleil adatom
Da nenoasad nirei ad mi kara

Zora maa kirei gy neri
Deri kol kimero, gy onögornak
Piaseni eni deri tajat mirejem
Hourano joruni
Violano ülmaruni

Ha ti deri kol kimero kaj
Kjoni da laram
Kjoni da havam
Ha paura djame mol misoj
Mino kae hazutugunte

Meni ironebb
Z midi um maa ni ouno ao
Ha iroid
Nan irosoj
Ha soda rot da mu mol
Tile da bu mi, da bu
Bu bugyiai mi
Havaroju

2018-09-06

The Agile Manifesto


Z Aggili Evolusareno Principiak

Kest principiakot kevetijenk:

Ternag prioritarenk da vašarołt sasuda, renzoksei kaj zaličkai burinakar, aditinai ataeto progam burinakar.

Vimaganani šežuk da okaeri, evolusareni aun serail. Aggili procesra šežukkar vantagot auferejech, vašaronak konkurencei vantagot šešijecheň.

Dolgigor progamot optal burineda, z kis šuuk pro b kis ketuk til pojani, kis tano eskalanak mavolusato.

Bjuzono ludia kaj evolusarenorra z pan prožetuni togedal maijom dovdolgida.

B motui žinra suhon ni prožeturat vizatojujoh. Neetuli chesintut i laguniat nekjuk adajoh, taskanak onrat suikeda mo.

Evolusareno uskłanak i b uskła brun ni nougarat tovabuda ronak mol hatikoňi i efikaci l procidur da ze vizaviza šaberu pšestrał ni.

Dolgigor progam da postempan eredai mensura.

Aggili procesra sustenabili evolusaret podposejech. Ha patrodenorra, i evolusarenorra, i utentura gy ledefinuil stendi ritimet kehepikendovech.

Techniagatheto stendi dikkatu i kirei gyizajno ha aggilet aduj.

Parzasa — astuzovtinai dolgono amuntat povečada žutu — da primordi.

Ha saikoi kiteturra i vimaganara i gyizajnora da ipsan kazmakerełmi uskłakar.

Maisai intervalurani, mol efikaciano iranenek ha uskła nouroj, tun kaj seker behaviajt udoskojor kaj hagyustojor.

2018-08-30

Cases and Declension: The Instrumental


The Instrumental is the case of the object used for complete an action and/or achieve its results. For example, I'm writing a letter to Santa Claus. Which object I should make use of?
  1. a pen
  2. a pencil
  3. a typewriter
  4. a computer
No matter what object you choose, it goes to the instrumental case.

In English we say something like:

→ I'll write a letter to Santa Claus with a pen.

Or:

→ I'll write a letter to Santa Claus with my computer.

Jusuk deals with it by putting the word in the instrumental case:

Ruckave Noelnek epiot rah kataboju.
→ I'll write a letter to Santa Claus with a pen.

Pasokonomve Noelnek epiot rah kataboju.
→ I'll write a letter to Santa Claus with my computer.

No matter how the word ends or which vowels are. The suffix remains the same. Quite simple.

That's enough for now. Bye~

2018-08-24

Cases and Declension: The Abessive


The Abessive is the case of the term that is flagged as missing or not present. In general, such terms are related to the subject or object.

 → The window was found without its glass.

In this case, the term without its glass refers to the subject — in this case, the window.

 → Shannon has bought a windowless home at Finse.

In this last one, it is related to the object, home.

In fact, the term usually refers to a "missing part" of something, either subject or object, and should be kept before the related term.

Jusuk marks it with the -le suffix, which remains the same, for any noun.

Mado lesoijle stateri.
 → The window was found without its glass.

Shannon Finse-ni madole hazat kaute.
 → Shannon has bought a windowless home at Finse.

Madua Hello Kitty da bušale?
 → Why Hello Kitty has no mouth? [lit. "Why Hello Kitty is mouthless?"]

That's enough for now. Bye~

2018-08-18

Cases and Declension: The Comitative

The Comitative is the case of the subject's companion, i.e., someone we would call a kind of "partner" of the subject. It's the case of accompaniment.

In fact, it differs from the member of a compound subject by an apparently little, but important aspect. In a compound subject, we notice every member as an active collaborator upon an action. For instance:

 → Peter and Kate went to the mall.  (Compound subject)

On the other hand, a subject's companion is a kind of supporting character, as someone who accompany the doer through the course of action.

 → Peter went with Kate to the mall.  (Subject's companion)

Used with the subject, the comitative does apply for people (and also for personified things) only. Although things used as instruments also comes with the "with" marker in English, these must go through the Instrumental case.

 → John Dee cuts the breat with a knife.  (Instrument)

Well, let's know how Jusuk deals with it:

Peter i Kate małani juketech.
 → Peter and Kate went to the mall.

Peter Kateto małani juketech.
 → Peter went with Kate to the mall.

Sometimes, the comitative goes into the object, both for things and people, too.

Vetsat lurto aggosuni miksejoh.
 → Mix the eggs with the flour into the bow.

Šenzanor gy ningen veitsat butato miksete.
 → A scientist has mixed an human embryo with pig [ones].

No matter how the word ends or which vowels are. The suffix (to) remains the same. Quite simple.

That's enough for now. Bye~

2018-08-12

My Name Is Pollyanna

Ha Numam da Pollyanna
Pollyanna-no Monogatari (Rumanča)



Fantesiano kaeni kijoh
Ledato sułmi hana douni

Keni kijoh, keni kijoh,
Guulešano lezzetet isujoh

Sest pan mestet iroto nundasumeoh
Deafasato ha kaet döništimeoh,
Imaguadot hanalejoh

Bizto kijoh
Manzokuhano gemut gemomejoh
Asobe da tet kłabaij
Ha numam da Pollyanna

Mito kijoh
Tinek acnaju pan da kirei
Asobe da tet kłabaij
Ha numam da Pollyanna



2018-08-06

Aline - Christophe

Aline
Christophe




Sabel maani dibuutom,
Menek emuvor kirei kaojot
Tun se lajuni amesote
Kazemonni evanicote

Kaj sakebtu, sakebtu, Aline, kerute na
Kaj namutu, namutu, oh! Mini deri nag pa

Sredced čikai ülogor deri mi
De makirei joko runesote
Nal mu jacepigor lukkattsutom
Kaj hopalei, met ticegoromnak

Kaj sakebtu, sakebtu, Aline, kerute na
Kaj namutu, namutu, oh! Mini deri nag pa

Se kirei kaojot kol kehepite,
Suemi sabel maani vraka jase

Kaj sakebtu, sakebtu, Aline, kerute na
Kaj namutu, namutu, oh! Mini deri nag pa

Kaj sakebtu, sakebtu, Aline, kerute na
Kaj namutu, namutu, oh! Mini deri nag pa


2018-07-31

Don Ari Na - Onde Houver Fé

Don Ari Na
Luiz Cláudio




Halat verekenu
Kompesonakar somrenker soda rot verekenu
Mirt i havat da mi mo
Hačuznet verekenu, afan...
De miker verełmi i rah lasti panot ekunai
Bogenhava, set verekenjem
Kiris da...

Don ari na
Gy koe zabše rah adelaj
«Da tito zabše rah kojš»
Don Ari na
Mir rah adelaj, nemugor žjokono irene jase da
Bognak suikedaň
Saruzbatamot kehepikenda, i met
Marebei da ha ekunai mae,
Don Ari na... 

Ke delani somren da,
He umno i kazno onot gyame ojutja
Sedo i kolece da,
Kaj teonobagornak demero, 
bał pomuckar bał mu,
Havalei saruzera no io,
De Ie pani volodot da meje
Kol veredovjonk


2018-07-28

Nando Moura i Rogério Betin brunni sačmalia



Maninzat marazoda ronak plu ip ražo:
Nulai ikadekoranak keseno faktum.
Nando Moura i Rogério Betin brunni sačmalia da gy amostra. 
Fi Bog na mi, ezzsint pusei kaeni na izolasotom.
O Etti, fermłabussz!




2018-07-26

Cases and Declension: The Possession System - Part II

Hi ♥


In the last post we were presented to the Possession System. We learned a bunch of suffixes that work for the purpose.

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-m-om, -em
youti-d-od, -ed
heon-j-ja, -je
she
it
webiz-nk-onk, -enk
youtiz-tok, -tek-otok, -itek
theyonk-juk-juk

However, we need remember something we were told:

"These endings are meant for possession of single objects only."

English pronouns remain the same, no matter how is the object count. Jusuk manages this in different way:

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-im-oim, -eim
youti-id-oid, -eid
heon-ij-ija, -ije
she
it
webiz-ink-oink, -eink
youtiz-itok, -itek-oitok, -eitek
theyonk-ijuk-ijuk

These endings are meant for possession of multiple objects, so they must get attached to the singular form of the noun.

Vowel harmony is quite simple as Turkish's (related to the latest vowel in the noun) aind involves just two vowel class (instead of that four ones in Turkish).
  • last vowel is one of a, o, u → -oim, -oid, -ija, -oink, -oitok
  • last vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü → -eim, -eid, -ije, -eink, -eitek 
Some examples:

kese da tejpeim.
 → these are my videotapes.

Albert, kese da kenjeid.
 → Albert, these are your books.

kese da tiroink.
 → these are our trees.

Peter i Julia, ase da krovaitok
 → Peter and Julia, those are your oxen.

These endings are meant for possession of multiple objects only, and every of these must be attached to the singular form of the noun, before any case.

And how get the possessive pronouns for these?

They remain the same as for possession of single objects.

Kesek da mino.
 → These is mine.

Kesek tejpek da mino.
 → These videotapes are mine.

Peter i Julia, asek krovara da tizno.
 → Peter and Julia, that oxen are yours.

O Charlie, kesek tirim da bizno, mu tino.
 → Charlie, these trees are ours, not yours.

O Charlie, kesek tirim mu tino, de bizno.
 → Charlie, these trees aren't yours, but ours.

Well... that's enough for now. Bye ;) 

2018-07-20

Cases and Declension: The Possession System

Hi ♥


Sometimes we're caught in a need of express certain things belongs to us or not, and so on. This is called possession and languages usually deal with it by using a subclass of words called possessive pronouns. Let's remember them:

Person Possessive Examples
Adjective Pronoun
Imyminethis is my car
this car is mine
youyouryoursthis is your book
this book is yours
hehishisthis is his wallet
this wallet is his
sheherhersthese are her shoes
these shoes are hers
ititsitsthat are its twigs
that twigs are its
weouroursthis is our house
this house is ours
youyouryoursthat is your farm
that farm is yours
theytheirtheirsthose are their husbands
those husbands are theirs

Let's know right now how Jusuk manages this.

Person Possessive Endings
English Jusuk words ending in vowel words ending in consonant
I mi-m-om, -em
youti-d-od, -ed
heon-j-ja, -je
she
it
webiz-nk-onk, -enk
youtiz-tok, -tek-otok, -itek
theyonk-juk-juk

In Jusuk, adjective pronouns became special endings and so they get attached to the related noun. You noticed more than one option for each person because their using depends on whether the noun ends in consonant or vowel, as also as the vowel harmony.

Vowel harmony is quite simple as Turkish's (related to the latest vowel in the noun) aind involves just two vowel class (instead of that four ones in Turkish).

  • last vowel is one of a, o, u → -om, -od, -ja, -onk, -tok/-otok
  • last vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü → -em, -ed, -je, -enk, -tek/-itek 

Some examples:

kese da kurumom.
 → this is my car.

Albert, kese da kenjed.
 → Albert, this is your book.

kese da hazonk.
 → this is our house.

Peter i Julia, ase da falmotok
 → Peter and Julia, that is your farm.

These endings are meant for possession of single objects only.

And how get the possessive pronouns?

In Jusuk, possessive pronouns are the same personal pronouns declined to the partitive, In other words:

  • mi "I" → mino "mine"
  • ti "you" → tino "yours"
  • on "he, she, it" → onno "his, hers, its"
  • biz "we" → bizno "ours"
  • tiz "you" → tizno "yours"
  • onk "they" → onkno "theirs"

More examples:

Kese da mino.
 → This is mine.

Kese kurum da mino.
 → This car is mine.

Peter i Julia, ase falmo da tizno.
 → Peter and Julia, that farm is yours.

O Charlie, kese haz da bizno, mu tino.
 → Charlie, this house is ours, not yours.

O Charlie, kese haz mu tino, de bizno.
 → Charlie, this house is not yours, but ours.

Well... that's enough for now. Bye ;) 

2018-07-14

Cases and Declension: The Medial Voice

Hey!



In the last posts we were presented to the active voice, i.e., when the subject acts.

John głasut rompote.
 → John broke a glass.

Inu bolat gerite.
 → The dog caught the ball.

[Mi] Gi ongaut ojukenu.
 → I can listen good music.

[Ti] Ekranot togukenjed.
 → you can touch the screen.

Bog panot laj.
 → God sees everything.

Also we have found how to deal with sentences in the passive voice.

Głasu John-kar rompoteri.
 → The glass was broken by John

Bola inukar geriteri.
 → The ball was caught by the dog

Gi ongau miker ojukeneri.
 → Good music can be listened by me

Ekran tiker togukeneri.
 → The screen can be touched by you

Pan Bogkar laji.
 → Everything is being seen by God

For the passive voice, three things were necessary:
  1. Move the object to the subject place (i.e., transform the object into the subject of the sentence);
  2. Move the subject to the agent of the passive (and unhiding it if needed as we had seen, when dealing with implied subject); and
  3. Mark the verb accordingly.
The Medial Voice serves to describe certain actions whose effects falls upon the subject and the object, either when subject and object are the same (reflexive) or when they are in both stances simutaneously (reciprocal).

It's more related to some certain verbs, such as dakasoda "hug", kisada "kiss", heda "talk" etc.

Reflexive: use the special verb form, with no object. Emphasis can be done with the dative form of eis "himself, herself, itself" (eisker).

Asszeberer
 → [He] shaves itself.

Eisker asszeberer
 → [He] shaves itself. 

Głasu rompoterer.
 → The glass broke.   (might be by an unknown actor or for some misfortune, etc)

Głasu eisker rompoterer.
 → The glass broke

Reciprocal: use the special verb form, placing both subject and object together in nominative. Emphasis can be made by using the dative form of eisim "themselves" (eisimker)

Markus i Julia hejer.
 → Markus and Julia talk to each other.

Markus i Julia eisimker hejer.
 → Markus and Julia talk to each other.

Declension table of eis "himself, herself, itself":

CasesSingularDualPlural
nom.eiseislereisim
acc.eisteislerteisimet
gen.eiseneislereneisimen
dat.eisnekeislernekeisimnek
abl.eiskereislerkereisimker
loc.eisnieislernieisimni
instr.eisveeislerveeisimve
part.eisnoeislernoeisimno
abe.eisleeislerleeisimle
comit.eistoeislertoeisimto

Posession

PersonSingularDualPlural
mieisemeisleremeiseim
tieisedeisleredeiseid
oneisjeeislerjeeiseije
bizeisenkeislerenkeiseink
tizeisitekeislertekeiseitek
onkeisjukeislerjukeiseijuk

Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-07-09

The Jusuk Language


First, some interesting sentences:

In mazani tosedaň → going through the fire 🔥
Sue mazani ajumudaň → walking over the waters 🌊
Kaz inelni zamegudaň → swirling around within the wind 🌪️

Second, Jusuk is the new language I extracted from Ozen Language by changing a few things slightly, mostly at verb conjugation. I'm just planning to explain it in a future post.

That's all for now.

2018-07-07

Cases and Declension: The Locative


The Locative case marks the terms specifying a place, a point in the timeline, or a subject. Latin uses it for places only, and so it is across many languages.

Place

Da mane ludia da brelogyani perfilaji
→ There are so many people in line at the bakery.

Cuket i batat tiželani položujoh, gil malgujoh kaj.
→ Put the sugar and butter into the bow and mix well.

Time

Denver elni passar 9:20-ni apogioj.
→ The flight to Denver departs at 9:20 a.m.

Sokka gemuno tani he ittersa darah akemi.
→ The restaurant will be open at the time of the soccer match.

Subject

Patrick Ebano Bazeni palestrat soj.
→ Patrick gives lectures on [the topic of] Network Security.

It is quite simple to attach it, just -ni at the end of the term. If it is a noun phrase, the word at the very end should receive it.

Special Using Modes

EnglishOzen
in the time of (...)
at the time of (...)
(...)-no tani
at (clock time)(clock time)-ni
yesterday
today
tomorrow
eren
kjo
ašiten
the place where (...)(...)-no touni
here
over here
over there
ke / keni
se / seni
e / eni

Clock Times

Jusuk and Ozen always use the 24h format, so the times in the p.m. period are shown accordingly:

→ 9:20 p.m. → 21:20
→ 5:30 a.m. → 5:30

Well, it should be enough for now. Bye (:

2018-07-01

Cases and Declension: The Passive Voice



In the last posts we were presented to some sentence ingredients — namely, the direct and indirect objects — but there is one thing they shared: their subjects in an active standing. We call it active voice, i.e., when the subject acts.

John broke a glass.
The dog caught the ball.
I can listen good music.
you can touch the screen.
God sees everything.

Every of these sentences are in active voice; their subjects doing the verb and the objects receiving effects: John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these subjects are doing things.

However, there is certain moments the subject will not be caught in action. Instead, it will only receive the effect. Basicly it is the soul of the passive voice.

In English, we make passive voice doing a sort of  be + the verb in ed + by , inverting the order of subject and object.

The glass was broken by John
The ball was caught by the dog
Good music can be listened by me
The screen can be touched by you
Everything is being seen by God

Notice that the object became the subject, and the subject became the agent of the passive.

Let's remember the active sentences. Take note of those with implied subject (shown in square brackets):

John głasut rompote.
Inu bolat gerite.
[Mi] Gi ongaut ojukenu.
[Ti] Ekranot togukenjed.
Bog panot laj.

Jusuk does it in another fashion, inverting terms and re-signaling them accordingly.

Głasu John-kar rompoteri.
Bola inukar geriteri.
Gi ongau miker ojukeneri.
Ekran tiker togukeneri.
Pan Bogkar laji.

First, the objects lost their -t suffix and became subjects. After, the former subject of the sentence became the agent of the passive voice, having the ablative case suffix (in red) attached to them. Finally, the verb took its passive form.

The passive form of any verb is the active form plus -i (if it ends with consonant) or -ri (if it ends with vowel), both for the past and non-past, definite or indefinite. Don't forget the verb must agree with the subject!

Jusuk marks the agent of the passive voice with the dative suffix -kar/-ker. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

How choose between kar and ker? According to the vowel harmony.

Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, ukarekran "screen" → ekrankar "by the screen"
London → Londonkar "by London" (it might be "by the London government")
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzkar
e, i, ö, ükerden "eletricity" → denker
žalapir "nymph" → žalapirker
kör "circular" (a document) → körker
basün "female cousin" → basünker

Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-06-28

Cases and Declension: The Indirect Object


In the last post we were presented to the direct object sentences. We had seen some sentences that does require something to make them complete, because the verb has not embodied the whole meaning.

John broke
the dog caught
I can hear
you can touch
God sees

We had seen their response, and learned it is called direct object.

John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these is a direct object.

Well. For certain verbs, depending on the context, providing the direct object may not be enough.

Jordan provided.
My firm gives.
Alethia has paid.
You told.

First, let's give them their direct objects:

Jordan provided clean water.
My firm gives a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment.
You told the truth.

But, wait! Who got the clean water? Who got the lunch voucher? Who gets the payment? And who gets the truth? Let's complete the sentences:

Jordan provided clean water to the community.
My firm gives their employees a lunch voucher.
Alethia has paid the monthly payment to the gym.
You told me the truth.

We would call each term the indirect object. According Grammar Bytes (access 2018-06-23), the indirect object is who gets or receives the direct object.

Jusuk marks the indirect object with the dative suffix -nak/-nek. You can just add them, regardless of  the word ends in consonant or not.

Jordan masjaranak kirei suet provite.
Pužotam pracoveijnek lunčano vałšat gerij.
Alethia dožonak ketunofiat pagajoň.
Minek verat heted.

How choose between nak or nek? According to the vowel harmony.


Last vowel
is...
Suffix
must be...
Examples
a, o, unakekran "screen" → ekranot
London → Londonot
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzot
e, i, ö, ünekden "eletricity" → denet
žalapir "nymph" → žalapiret
kör "circular" (a document) → köret
basün "female cousin" → basünet


Well, it's all for now. Bye (:

2018-06-22

Cases and Declension: The Direct Object


Such coffeepot depicted in the book's cover is a very strange object.


Some verb does not require terms to make their meaning complete, e.g., walk, run, grow, live, die, breathe... Effectively:

Mark walks
Steve runs
I grow
you live
Shannon has died
Kanon breathes 

etc. Thee phrases are complete, nothing more is needed to make them readily understandable.

However, other verbs need a complement, such as break, catch, see, hear, touch and so on.

John broke
the dog caught
I can hear
you can touch
God sees

and so on. all these are incomplete, and then a question arises: What he broke? What the dog caught? What I can hear? What you can touch? What God see?

The response to all of these questions is embodied by the direct object.

John broke the glass, the dog caught the ball, I can hear good music, you can touch the screen, God sees everything. Each of these is a direct object.

Jusuk marks direct object with the accusative suffix -t.

When the word ends in vowel or r or s or š or z or ž it's straightforward: just add -t.

John głasut rompote.
Inu bolat gerite.
Gi ongaut ojukenu.
Ekranot togukenjed.
Bog panot laj.

Some words:

žalapir "nymph" → žalapirt
kör "circular" (a document) → kört

If the word end in consonant (other than r, s, š, z, ž), it takes o or e right before taking the suffix, according to the vowel harmony.


Last vowel
is...
Link vowel
must be...
Examples
a, o, uoekran "screen" → ekranot
London → Londonot
tapuz "orange" (the fruit) → tapuzot
e, i, ö, üeden "eletricity" → denet
prestig "prestige" → prestiget
nög "nose" → nöget
basün "female cousin" → basünet


Well, it's all for now. Bye (: