2016-01-27

Build Your Own Language

You don't need to be a linguist doctor or a PhD to start building your language. You can do it right now, just by knowing the correct order of doing it and a few things more.

According to Mark Rosenfelder in The Language Construction Kit, you must follow a certain order which he presents that. I'll put them below:


Well, maybe you look through the site I've not used nor invented any new alphabet at all. At most I'd used some foreign scripts such as Cyrilic and, more recently,  Hangul. I like them both.

If you are creating a fictional language, perhaps you want to create your own alphabet (or syllabary,  ideogram scheme etc). Personally, I'll not cover this step. I believe you can look here for what Mark teachs and mentions about it. He mentions about using the Roman Alphabet as a base and, then, show the steps you may follow in order to create your own writing system.

I do prefer using Roman alphabet variations or perhaps one of existing writing systems (such as Cyrilic), so it get easier to spread over the Web. I use to ignore the 4th and 5th from the steps above.


2016-01-23

Psalm XXIII of the Holy Bible

1. UR Pastoram da, minek nul darah falto.
2. Midori relvani mett zudyasaya; szizukei elsueni mett dusail gesteya.
3. Sredsemt soyusoya; b Namayan zelunak z pravicen iranekni mett gesteya.
4. Aun z kutaban umbran vadini na ayumityu, nuli akut temorabyu, bakoz mito Ti da; ti botod kay osoblad, kosak mett namdrayik.
5. Behar ak enemomen astiani, behar mett ment listeyesz; aburave hedomat nurimeyed, kay kalisem previla.
6. Sure l agathosuna kay milosredsa b tul larajum mett keveyuk; Ur hazyani z hossunani darah rizorteya.
1. The LORD {is} my shepherd; I shall not want.
2. He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters. {green...: Heb. pastures of tender grass} {still...: Heb. waters of quietness}
3. He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
4. Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou {art} with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.
5. Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. {anointest: Heb. makest fat}
6. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever. {for ever: Heb. to length of days}


VOKABULAR:

abura (noun) : oil
ayumida (verb) : to walk
bakoz (discourse marker) : because of
behar (preposition) : before, in front of
bot (noun) : rod
dusail (adverb) : calmly, quietly
enemo (noun) : enemy
faltoda (verb) : to lack, to fall short
gesteda (verb) : to lead, to drive someone to
hossuna (noun) : long days, long term, long time
irane (noun) : way, road
kalis (noun) : calyx, chalice, cup
keveda (verb) : to follow someone
laraju (noun) : every day of life
listeda (verb) : to prepare
astia (noun) : presence
midori (adjective) : green
milosredsa (noun) : mercy  
agathosuna (noun) : goodness, benignity
nurimeda (verb) : to anoint
nama (noun) : proper name
namdrada (verb) : to comfort
osobla (noun) : staff
pravice (noun) : justice
previlada (verb) : to boil over, to overflow
relva (noun) : grass, turf
rizorteda (verb) : to dwell, to inhabit
sredse (noun) : heart, soul
soyu (noun) : cold
soyusoda (verb) : to make cold
szizukei (adjective) : calm, quiet
szizukesa (noun) : quietude, quietness, calmness
temorada (verb) : to be afraid of
umbra (noun) : shadow
Ur (noun) : the Lord
vadi (noun) : valley
yaseda (verb) : to bed, to lay down
zelu (noun) : zeal
zuyasada (verb) : to make someone lay down

2016-01-20

Cases and Suffixes of Meaning


In Varga Language, alike in Seylum, nouns can receive special endings to indicate the most common roles of a word in the phrase, where other languages used to deal with such relations through prepositions and other additional words and expressions.

In some cases (namely from the second to the fifth line), some sufixes depend on vowel harmony, based upon last vowel of the word. Basicly, if it is on (a, o, u) group, the suffix to be used is that one containing a or o, and if the last vowel falls onto (e, i, ö, ü) group, takie that other containing e.

For the direct object suffix, it's simplt -t when the word ends with vowel or with (r, s, sz, z, n).

For the genitive suffix, it's simplt -n when the word ends with vowel.


SuffixRole of the wordSamples
Nominativebi
"sun"
nun
"fish"
deti
"family"
tomo
"friend"
-t / -ot / -etDirect objectbitnunotdetittomot
-n / -on / -enGenitive
("of...")
binnunondetintomon
-nak / -nekDative
("something is done for...")
bineknunnakdetinektomonak
-kar / -kerAblative
("shomething is done by...")
bikernunkardetikertomokar
-hazHome indicator
("x's Home")
bihaznunhazdetihaztomohaz
-veInstrumental
("using...")
bivenunvedetivetomove
-niLocative
("in the...")
bininunnidetinitomoni
-noPartitive
("of...")
binonunnodetinotomono
-leAbessive
("without...")
bilenunledetiletomole
-toComitative
("with...")
bitonuntodetitotomoto
-fiConditional
("in case of... / being...")
bifinunfidetifitomofi


For the personal pronouns, many of them have special forms, mainly biz and tiz:


SuffixRole of the wordSamples
Nominativemi
"I"
ti
"You"
ö
"He/She/It"
biz
"We"
tiz
"You*"
ök
"They"
-t / -ot / -etDirect objectmetttettötbigettigetöket
-n / -on / -enGenitivemintinönbigentigenöken
-nak / -nekDativeminektinekönekbignektigneköknek
-kar / -kerAblativemikertikerökerbigkertigkerökker
-hazHome indicatormihaztihazöhezbighaztighazökhez
-veInstrumentalmivetiveövebigvetigveökve
-niLocativeminitiniönibignitigniökni
-noPartitiveminotinoönobignotignoökno
-leAbessivemiletileölebigletigleökle
-toComitativemitotitoötobigtotigtoökto
-fiConditionalmifitifiöfibigfitigfiökfi


So that's for now (:



2016-01-08

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in Varga Language

Transitive verbs are those that request an object, so they get complete sense. For example: to eat, to drink, to make, to do. Intransitive verbs are thos that don't need objects to make sense. For example: to birth, to grow up, to reproduce, to die.

We know that there is no mean in English to distinguish between intransitives and transitives just by looking to the verb itself. In truth, many languages don't have such flags or mechanism.

Recognizing Intransitive and Transitive Verbs

Varga has an intricated mechanism to aid distinguish between verbs and verbs that makes use of vowel harmony. Depending on the harmony or dissonancy between the thematic vowel (the one right before the infinitive ending -da) and its prior one, anyone can distinguish between transitives and intransitives. So let's remember vowel harmony rules:
  • a → is a back vowel, so it harmonizes with each one of back vowels (a, o, u);
  • o → is a back vowel, so it harmonizes with each one of back vowels (a, o, u);
  • e → is a front vowel, so it harmonizes with each one of front vowels (e, i, ö, ü);
  • Every another combination is dissonant.
Examples with Intransitives:
  • abakeda "to wake up" → stem abake- (a/e dissonant)
Examples with Transitives:
  • arbiteda "to judge" → stem arbite- (i/e harmonic)
  • abakoda "to wake [someone else]" → stem abako- (a/o harmonic)
However, such mechanism does not apply to verbs with monossylabic stem, such as eda "to eat", ida "to say", soda "to do", böda "to birth". It also does not apply for the vetida "to exist" verb.
Some verbs 




2016-01-01

The Varga Language

After a serious reformulation on verb conjugation mechanism and also a new rule on verb infinitives, let's start conlanging a new language.

Well, not entirely new. The base remains the same as Seylum. Let's work upon the Seylum alphabet and vocabulary. The only changes seem to be at verbal system and also on verb infinitives, which must have a vowel before the da ending.

For example: znacz becomes znada, and ayumcz changes to ayumida (or ayusoda)...

As soon as possible, I hope add a tab under the header above page.

EDIT as of Feb 14, 2016: Edited a few (however, very important) things (those underlined above). Also, every dj digraph must be changed to gy digraph, kept the same sound.