2015-06-07

The Participle Forms and Its Usage

Beyond their known conjugations, verbs can also be used like adjectives. Participle forms help communication with clarity and conciseness, since the needed amount of words is reduced and structures based upon relative pronouns are replaced by shorter -- and clearer -- ones.

In English, participles are quite used. Some examples:

The post office installed in our neighborhood is not working.
The film being watched cost millions of dollars.

Sometimes we can notice that there is an implicit that is or that was in the sentence.

However, not all forms of sentences can be converted (or if yes, they usually result very ambiguous) to participles in English. Look the following one:

The Truth that leads to Eternal Life

This one is non convertible to participle form, which would be The leading Truth to Eternal Life , because the word leading has a different meaning of something that goes in front (as a leader among its group), instead of the something unique causing that effect.

In Selyum language, the participle forms are made from the verb stem by adding suffixes and, whether needed, a link vowel (a or e).

Verb stem ends with
consonant
Verb stem ends with
vowel
Active No-past-anti, -enti-nanti, -nenti
Passive No-past-atti, -etti-tti
Active Past-nurr-urr
Passive Past -nurri-urri

Remember the vowel harmony rule:

Vowel (a, o, u)link vowel is a
Vowel (e, i, ö, ü)link vowel is e

Take a look on the participle forms of some verbs:

VerbStemActive
No-past 
Participle
Passive
No-past 
Participle
Active
Past 
Participle
Passive
Past
Participle
latczlatlatantilatattilaturrlaturri
soczsosonantisottisonurrsonurri
yeremczyeremyerementiyeremettiyeremurryeremurri
meczmemenentimettimenurrmenurri


Participle forms are useful for sentence construction -- especially while using them where, in English, we make use of adjective subordinates -- by replacing somewhat complex relative clauses with conciseness and clarity.

Safram aratti virt domane yeremu.
Tomorrow I’ll hire a man that plowed my field.

Note that the Seylum form is more likely in the form, literally: field-my plow-{active-no-past-participle} man-{accusative} tomorrow hire-I.



Other kind of phrases make use of passive forms within their structure (in a manner that had been unknown to English learners and speakers), instead of participles:

Vecindank-ni instaluli posta mu dolg.
The post office installed in our neighborhood is not working. 

Instaluli is the definite, no-past passive form of instalcz "to install". When available, definite forms must be used when the corresponding term be itself definite.

Menlatuli filmu dolara milionak kust.
The film being watched cost millions of dollars.

Eleinlara menteykenenti vera.
The Truth that leads to Eternal Life





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