2019-02-12

Seja fria no amar, cruel no rogo

Vejamos:


"Seja fria no amar, cruel no rôgo,
fria, se é toda jaspe, e toda neve,
cruel, se é toda sangue, e toda fogo."

(Jerônimo Baía. In: A Fênix Renascida ou obras dos melhores engenhos portugueses. Lisboa: Off. Antonio Pedrozo Galram, 1746, tomo III, p. 217 e p.219. Citado por Maria do Socorro Fernandes de Carvalho In: Poesia de Agudeza em Portugal: Estudo retórico da poesia lírica e satírica escrita em Portugal no Século XVII. São Paulo: Humanitas Editorial; Edusp, Fapesp, 2007. Trecho disponível em: https://books.google.com.br/books?id=1lGDk5pYriIC&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252 . Acesso 12/02/2009). 

2019-02-07

The Copula at Its Imperative Forms


As said earlier, the copula da is a fundamental particle which performs some of the functions usually performed by the verb to be and its forms, the link between the subject and its predicate.

So let us focus at the imperative part, done by the form ba and its related forms as you can see below:

Tense/
Mode
No-pastPastNo-past
(with emphasis on future)
Affirm.Neg.Affirm.Neg.Affirm.Neg.
Factualdamu /
ne
derimu deri /
ne deri
darahmu darah /
ne darah
Desiderative/
Potential
namu na/
ne na
nerimu neri/
ne neri
narahmu narah/
ne narah
Imperativebamu ba/
ne ba
berimu beri/
ne beri
barahmu barah/
ne barah

The Imperative form embodied at this particle is possibly rhetoric at most, although it may be used also for practical ordenative as shown below:

§ Jad VIR ba.
→ "Be a MAN."

§ Jad gi ko ba.
→ "Be a good girl."

well... this must be enough for now (:

2019-01-18

The Copula at Its Potential Forms


As said earlier, the copula da is a fundamental particle which performs some of the functions usually performed by the verb to be and its forms, the link between the subject and its predicate.

So let us focus at the potential part, done by the form na which you can see below:

Tense/
Mode
No-pastPastNo-past
(with emphasis on future)
Affirm.Neg.Affirm.Neg.Affirm.Neg.
Factualdamu /
ne
derimu deri /
ne deri
darahmu darah /
ne darah
Desiderative/
Potential
namu na/
ne na
nerimu neri/
ne neri
narahmu narah/
ne narah
Imperativebamu ba/
ne ba
berimu beri/
ne beri
barahmu barah/
ne barah

Due to the potential form embodied, the particle na and its variations (the na-branch particles) aren't meant for declarations or statements. Instead, they are for assumptions, kinda things starting with "if it was..." or "if it could be...".

§ Carly Simon da leonor, de on neri aktor.
 → Carly Simon is singer, but she would be an actress.

§ Kapkek na levniai, kol narah legurmezotjaror. [1]
 → Cupcake can be cheaper, just degourmetize it.

These na-branch particles may be used for putting verbs into desiderative/potential forms.

Well, that's it for now (:
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[1] lit. "just [it] should be degourmetized".